Answered By: Jane T
Last Updated: Aug 07, 2019     Views: 71

A secondary citation is when you cite a source within a source, you should always try to trace the original reference. If this is not possible, you should acknowledge both sources in the text, but only include the item you actually read in your reference list.

For example in your assignment text use the below format:

  • Freire (1972, cited in Vella, 2002: 6) refers to …

Note that, Vella, not Freire, will go in the bibliography because you have not read Freire’s original work: you read about it in Vella’s book.

In your bibliography/reference list use this format:

VELLA, J., 2002. Learning to Listen, Learning to Teach: The Power of Dialogue in Educating Adults. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.


For further details please refer to the Harvard Referencing Guide or get in touch.

If you are using a different referencing style to Harvard please contact your tutor for support.

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